Translation is an interesting thing

Modern American Universities

Before the 1850’s, the United States had a number of small colleges, most of them dating from

colonial ays. They were small, church connected institutions whose primary concern was to shape the moral character of their students.

  Throughout Europe, institutions of higher learning had developed, bearing the ancient name of

university. In German university was concerned primarily with creating and spreading knowledge,

not morals. Between mid-century and the end of the 1800’s, more than nine thousand young Americans, dissatisfied with their training at home, went to Germany for advanced study. Some of them return to become presidents of venerable colleges—–Harvard, Yale, Columbia—and transform them into modern universities. The new presidents broke all ties with the churches and brought in a new kind of faculty. Professors were hired for their knowledge of a subject, not because they were of the proper faith and had a strong arm for disciplining students.  The new principle was that a university was to create knowledge as well as pass it on, and this called for a faculty composed of teacher-scholars.

   Drilling and learning by rote were replaced by the German method of lecturing, in which the professor’s own research was presented in class. Graduate training leading to the Ph.D., an ancient

German degree signifying the highest level of advanced scholarly attainment,  was   introduced.

With the establishment of the seminar system, graduate student learned to question, analyze, and conduct their own research.

   At the same time, the new university greatly expanded in size and course offerings, breaking completely out  of the old, constricted curriculum  of mathematics, classics,   rhetoric,   and   music.

  The president of Harvard pioneered the elective system, by which  students were able to choose their own course of study. The notion of major fields of study emerged. The new goal was to make the university relevant to the real pursuits of the world. Paying close heed to the practical needs of society, the new universities trained men and women to work at its tasks, with   engineering students being the most characteristic of the new regime. Students were also trained as economists, architects, agriculturalists, social welfare workers, and teachers.

 

 现代的美国大学

在十九世纪50年代之前,美国拥有许多小规模的学院,他们的历史多数都要追溯到殖民统治时期。他们作为一种小型教会,首先关心的是让学生形成自己的道德品质。

在整个欧洲,更先进的教育体制已经在那些历史悠久的高等学府发展起来。在德国的大学里主要涉及创造和知识的传播,而不是道德。从中世纪到19世纪末期,超过9000个美国年轻人,对他们国内的教学方式不满意,因而想去德国深造。之后,他们中的一些人回国成为了著名高校里的校长,并将她们转型成为了现代大学,其中有哈佛大学,耶鲁大学,哥伦比亚大学等。新的校长打破了之前所有的教条,并且招募了新一批教职员工。由于学识的渊博,教授们受到校方聘请,而原先需要正确的信仰和对付信徒学生们的强横手段不再作为聘用的理由。新的原则是,一所大学的职责是创造和传播知识,并且这需要教师学者们的努力。

德国人授课的方式已经取代了原先通过死记硬背来专研和学习,这种新的方式允教授们把自己的研究陈果在课堂上展示。随着一批批被培养出来的博士毕业生被引进,这些由古老的德国授予的学位标志了最高学术水平的先进程度,
      
研讨会制度的建立,促使学生们学着去提出问题,分析问题,并进行自己的研究工作。

与此同时,新的大学不仅在规模上扩大还对课程设置进行拖延,完全打破了陈旧的,狭隘的课程,而原先的课程仅涵盖了数学,古典文学,修辞和音乐。

哈佛大学的校长率先提出了可选制度,学生们能够选择自己的课程进行学习。于是主要研究领域的的概念出现。新的目标是使大学与社会中的实际事务工作相互关联。随着工程专业类学生逐渐成为新社会体制下的典型代表,当前的大学毕业生应该密切注意社会的实际需要。当然,大学生们也能够被培养成为经济学家,建筑师,农业家,社会福利工作者和教师。

 


The whole document was translated by 5 students.You can download here.

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